Education Main article: Education in Russia Russia has the most college-level or higher graduates in terms of percentage of population in the world,. 110 The average nominal salary in Russia was 967 per month in early 2013, up from 80 in 2000. 69 The PolishLithuanian Commonwealth occupied parts of Russia, including Moscow. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the.S. 56 Galicia-Volhynia was eventually assimilated by the Kingdom of Poland, while the Mongol-dominated Vladimir-Suzdal and Novgorod Republic, two regions on the periphery of Kiev, established the basis for the modern Russian nation. Major sea ports of Russia include Rostov-on-Don on the Azov Sea, Novorossiysk on the Black Sea, Astrakhan and Makhachkala on the Caspian, Kaliningrad and St Petersburg on the Baltic, Arkhangelsk on the White Sea, Murmansk on the Barents Sea, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and Vladivostok on the Pacific.
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72 73 This continued with Alexander I's (180125) wresting of Finland from the weakened kingdom of Sweden dating sivustoja etelä-afrikka eastern cape in 1809 and of Bessarabia from the Ottomans in 1812. Russia's territorial expansion was achieved largely in the late 16th century under the Cossack Yermak Timofeyevich during the reign of Ivan the Terrible, at a time when competing city-states in the western regions of Russia had banded together to form one country. 96 After Stalin's death and a short period of collective rule, the new leader Nikita Khrushchev denounced the cult of personality of Stalin and launched the policy of de-Stalinization. As a result of victories over Qajar Iran through the Russo-Persian Wars, by the first half of the 19th century Russia also made significant territorial gains in Transcaucasia and the North Caucasus, forcing the former to irrevocably cede what is nowadays Georgia, Dagestan, Azerbaijan and. Topography The two most widely separated points in Russia are about 8,000 km (4,971 mi) apart along a geodesic line. Republics are meant to be home to specific ethnic minorities. In the 1990s, businessmen had to pay different criminal groups to provide a " krysha " (literally, a "roof.e., protection). Russia continued its territorial growth through the 17th century, which was the age of Cossacks.